ansible 下lineinfile详细使用

一、简述

这几天在看了ansible官网,收获蛮多。截取一个lineinfile模块作一个总结。如果批量修改配置文件某一行时,在写playbook时lineinfile避免不了的。

根据官网说法:lineinfile - Ensure a particular line is in a file, or replace an existing line using a back-referenced regular expression.大意是说,针对文件特殊行,使用后端引用的正则表达式来替换

二、实践

playbook,我先定义前面common部分。

---
- hosts: "{{host}}"
remote_user: "{{user}}"
gather_facts: false

tasks:

由于我已经定义标签tags,执行playbook中某个特定任务时,只需执行到对应TAGNAME便可

ansible-playbook line1.yml --extra-vars "host=gitlab user=root" --tags "TAGNAME" -v

1、正则匹配,更改某个关键参数值

   - name: seline modify enforcing
lineinfile:
dest: /etc/selinux/config
regexp: ^SELINUX=
line: SELINUX=enforcing

验证

[[email protected] test]# cat /etc/selinux/config

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#     enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#     permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#     disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=enforcing
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
#     targeted - Targeted processes are protected,
#     mls - Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

2、在匹配的内容前或后增加一行

2.1 http.conf

[[email protected] test]# cat http.conf
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
#Port

2.2 insertbefore匹配内容在前面添加

    - name: httpd.conf modify 8080
lineinfile:
dest: /opt/playbook/test/http.conf
regexp: ^Listen
insertbefore: ^#Port
line: Listen 8080
tags:
- http8080

验证

[[email protected] test]# cat http.conf
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
Listen 8080
#Port

2.3 insertafter匹配内容在后面添加

- name: httpd.conf modify 8080
lineinfile:
dest: /opt/playbook/test/http.conf
regexp: ^Listen
insertafter: ^#Port
line: Listen 8080
tags:
- http8080

验证

[[email protected] test]# cat http.conf
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
#Listen 80
#Port
Listen 8080

3.修改文件内容和权限

3.1 原文件内容及权限

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1		localhost.localdomain localhost ::1		localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
[[email protected] test]# ls -l hosts
-rwxrwxr-x 1 root qingyun 111 12月 13 18:07 hosts

3.2 剧本

    - name: modify hosts
lineinfile:
dest: /opt/playbook/test/hosts
regexp: ^127.0.0.1
line: 127.0.0.1 localhosts
owner: root
group: root
mode: 0644
tags:
- hosts

3.3 执行验证

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
[[email protected] test]# ls -l hosts
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 49 12月 13 18:16 hosts

4、删除某一行内容

4.1 原文件

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo

4.2 absent剧本

- name: delete 192.168.1.1
lineinfile:
dest:  /opt/playbook/test/hosts
state: absent
regexp: ^192.
tags:
- delete192

4.3 验证

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts

127.0.0.1 localhosts

5、文件存在就添加一行

5.1原文件

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts

5.2 剧本

    - name: add a line
lineinfile:
dest:  /opt/playbook/test/hosts
line: 192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo
tags:
- add_a_line

5.3 验证

[[email protected] test]# cat hosts
127.0.0.1 localhosts
192.168.1.2 foo.lab.net foo

6、如果匹配到,引用line这一行作为替换。如果没有匹配到,则完全引用line这一行作为添加

6.1 原文件

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL

6.2 剧本

    - name: Fully quoted a line
lineinfile:
dest: /opt/playbook/test/testfile
state: present
regexp: ^%wheel
line: %wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

tags:
- testfile

6.3 验证

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

6.4 原文件

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  1234  ALL =(all) NOPASSWD

6.5 验证

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [Fully quoted a line] *****************************************************
changed: [master] => {"backup": "", "changed": true, "msg": "line replaced"}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
master                     : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

7、关于参数backrefs,backup使用。

  • backrefs为no时,如果没有匹配,则添加一行line。如果匹配了,则把匹配内容替被换为line内容。

  • backrefs为yes时,如果没有匹配,则文件保持不变。如果匹配了,把匹配内容替被换为line内容。

  • backup为no时,没有匹配,则添加。如果匹配了,则替换

  • backup为yes时,没有匹配,添加,如果匹配了,则替换

7.1 需要关心的,backrefs为yes时情景

7.1.1 原文件

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL
#?bar

7.1.2 剧本

    - name: test backrefs
lineinfile:
#          backup: yes
state: present
dest: /opt/playbook/test/testfile
regexp: ^#?bar
backrefs: yes
line: bar
tags:
- test_backrefs

7.1.3 验证

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL
bar

7.1.3 没有匹配

[[email protected] test]# cat testfile
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL

7.1.4 验证

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [test backrefs] ***********************************************************
ok: [master] => {"backup": "", "changed": false, "msg": ""}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
master                     : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0

文件保持不变

8、使用valiate参数,在保存sudoers文件前,验证语法,如果有错,执行时,会报出来,重新编辑playbook

8.1 剧本

- name: test validate
lineinfile:
dest: /etc/sudoers
state: present
regexp: ^%ADMIN ALL=
line: %ADMIN ALL=(ALL)
validate: visudo -cf %s
tags:
- testsudo

8.2 执行验证就说语法不过关

Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [gitlab] ******************************************************************

TASK [test validate] ***********************************************************
fatal: [master]: FAILED! => {"changed": false, "failed": true, "msg": "failed to validate: rc:1 error:visudo:>>> /tmp/tmpgQjHYM:syntax error 在行 114 附近<<

三、总结

具体模块使用,ansible-doc可以查看详细用法。

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